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The purpose of the sprinkler system is to provide a direct and rapid response to a possible fire. Especially in industrial areas as well as in hospitals, public buildings and skyscrapers; It is used in high, large and large buildings. The working logic of this system on the ceilings is very simple. Briefly, the small heat-sensitive glass that holds the water inside breaks and sprays all the water over a large area.
In Turkey, the design of fire extinguishing systems defined in the regulation of the mandatory application of fire extinguishing systems, TS EN 12845 must be done in accordance with the standard.
The NFPA 13 standard, which is accepted worldwide, is frequently used in system designs. Sprinkler systems produced in our country are designed in the same standard. The reasons why the NFPA 13 standard is widely preferred are as follows:
- NFPA 13 standard is a worldwide trusted design.
- This standard has been tested in many fields and has proven its quality.
- It has been subjected to extensive tests and has obtained successful data.
- For these reasons, it is frequently preferred in our country and in the world.
The sprinkler system is a sprinkler system and is used against fire. The design of the system also differs according to the physical characteristics of the area where it will be applied. In this context, design criteria vary according to the hazard class of the building to be protected from fire.
Steps to be followed in Sprinkler System
Firstly, the hazard classification that determines the installation and design of the system should be made. In other words, it should be checked whether there is low, medium, and high fire hazard in the area where the system will be installed. In this way, the sprinkler system used in industrial areas that produce chemicals and the sprinkler system used in shopping centres have different structures
After determining the hazard class, the type of system must be selected. For example, the evaluations made according to the design density or operation area in the TS EN 12845 regulation are examined under two headings. The areas with a value of 7.0 in the It/Dk-m2 area and over 250 m2 are considered as high hazardous manufacturing areas. In this respect, the type of the system should be determined to give the best performance to the high hazard area.
Sprinkler system is an extinguishing system by sprinkling as defined above. Therefore, water should be added to the system by specialised teams and the tank should be adjusted. The elimination of the water requirement is directly related to the efficiency and usefulness of the system.
Another situation that should be considered in sprinkler system installation is the determination of piping principles. In order not to cause images that will be described as bad in physical terms, pipe bases should be professionally mounted by expert teams.
Since the sprinkler system is a water-powered system, it needs a hydraulic analysis. In this respect, the correct operation of the sprinkler system is ensured by hydraulic analyses.
Sprinkler sprinkler systems are used in areas with fire risk, especially in industrial areas. Sprinkler sprinkler systems are divided into different types depending on the fire risk of the area where it is installed. This distinction is examined under four headings: wet pipe, dry pipe, deluge and preaction sprinkler extinguishing systems.
Wet Pipe Sprinkler
The wet pipe system has the function of automatically intervening in the fire. There is always water in the pipes in the system. The water in the system moves with the increase in the heat level in the area. The mobilised water opens the valves of the system. Then the water in the pipes is discharged out in a pressurised manner and the fire is extinguished. The extinguishing of the fire is extremely fast in the wet pipe system, the smoke that prevents the vision caused by the flames is prevented and the fire is extinguished at the initial stage.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler
In the dry pipe system, water is stored in a tank, not in the pipes. The water kept behind the valves moves with the increase in the temperature level in the area. This system utilises compressed air. While the increase in the temperature level activates the system, thanks to the compressed air, the valves are opened from the tank and water is supplied to the pipes, then water is sprayed to the fire area. The difference from the aqueous system is that the water is kept behind the valves, not in the pipes.
Deluge Sprinkler System
In the Deluge system, the sensors that detect fire are located outside the system, not inside it. In other systems, the activation of the system depends on the increase in the amount of heat in the area. But in the deluge system, the detection process takes place extremely quickly. Since the sensors that detect fire and activate the system are located outside the system, the extinguishing process starts more quickly than other systems.
In the deluge system, the sprinkler is open but the valves are closed. In case of fire, the valves are automatically opened and water is sprayed intensively because the sprinkler is already open. In this way, the fire is prevented from growing.
Preaction Sprinkler System
Unlike the Deluge system, it is known as a system where the sprinklers are not open. At the ends of the sprinklers, there are bulbs made of insulated material with heat-melting properties or thin glass with explosion properties. In the event of a possible fire, the extinguishing process starts with the melting or explosion of the bulbs in the system in question.
Sprinkler System Calculation
In order to prevent possible fire situations, the calculation of the installed sprinklers must be made beforehand. This calculation includes physical dimensions such as gaps between pipes. The methods applied during the laying of pipes are as follows:
- Tree piping,
- Loop pipework,
- Grid pipework.
Sprinkler calculation is made with one of these methods.
For buildings and structures with a usage area not exceeding 465 square metres, it starts as 2 sprinklers for DN25 pipe diameter and continues by folding.
Installation of 3 sprinklers for DN32 pipe diameter, 5 sprinklers for DN40, 10 sprinklers for DN50, 20 sprinklers for DN65, 40 sprinklers for DN80, 100 sprinklers for DN100, 160 sprinklers for DN125 and 275 sprinklers for DN150 gives functional results. This calculation is made for those in the low hazard category. The method of laying the pipes and the number of sprinklers to be included are included in the relevant regulations and TSE standard tables as mentioned above.
- Sprinkler systems are legally obliged to be used in some areas. These areas are as follows:
- Buildings with a height of more than 30.50 metres, except for offices and houses,
- In apartment buildings with a height of more than 51.59 metres,
- In offices and workplaces with a height of more than 30.50 metres,
- In covered car parks with more than one ground floor and a capacity of more than 20 vehicles,
- In guesthouses, hotels and hostels with a capacity of more than 200 beds,
- More than 2000 square metres of usage area in shopping malls, stores, meeting halls and similar businesses.
The use of sprinkler fire extinguishing systems in these articles is legally mandatory.
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